Annex B: Research Data

https://docs.google.com/a/s2013.sst.edu.sg/forms/d/17c3DFRmnfs6GBrnFrORujwhfS2CzgfTOVzxLj5t64wA/edit


Link:
Info 1


Info 2


Legend:
ABC: relavant info
ABC: supporting info


First 3 Paras:


Making it last
It seems probable that school days and school years will become longer. Time for non-instructional activities such as recess, lunch, and traveling from class to class will be reduced. The most significant changes will be made in high schools, where there is a trend toward replacing the traditional seven or eight period day with longer class periods, called "blocks." Longer class periods lend themselves to inquiry-based instruction that actively engages students in learning. Students take fewer subjects each day or term and go into greater depth in each; teachers work with fewer students at a time.
Testing and learning
Most states have new curriculum frameworks based on recently developed national standards. These frameworks drive state testing. School districts must ensure that district curricula are aligned with the state tests, which can be a strong catalyst for change at the school level.
While the traditional disciplines still form the core of what children study in school, most states have added world languages and health to the core curriculum. Languages are best learned before age 10, in an immersion setting, but most elementary schools provide little, if any, substantive instruction in a foreign language. Districts will have to rethink how and when languages are taught if students are to be truly proficient in a language other than English by the time they graduate from high school.
In all grades, there will be increased emphasis on problem-solving and inquiry. Students will be expected to apply knowledge and skills to real-life problems and to demonstrate "habits of mind" that support lifelong learning. They may be doing more projects and more writing.
As districts upgrade school buildings and technology tools, students will learn to use these tools for writing and research. New technologies will enable children to manipulate data, to experience physical phenomena and historical events through simulations, and to access resources around the world. Technology can provide powerful learning tools, but it remains to be seen whether funding will be adequate to ensure that all students have access to them.
How will students be evaluated?
Accountability is a prevalent theme in education reform. There is growing interest in more frequent testing and in using test results as a measure of school effectiveness. States usually mandate testing in grades 4, 8, and 10. Many state tests include open-ended problems and writing samples. When school funding, pay raises for teachers and administrators, and high school diplomas for students depend upon school and individual test results, it is called "high stakes" testing.
Another form of assessment, portfolio assessment, is a popular way to document student progress over time in meeting standards for a particular grade level or course. Students include representative samples of their best work in their portfolio. Portfolio assessment is effective when teacher expectations for student work are high and students have a clear understanding of what constitutes quality work. Portfolios are used in conjunction with tests and quizzes to evaluate student performance.


Green - Something we can infer from
Red - Supports research


Last 3 Para:
Will teachers and teaching change?
What we know about effective teaching grows daily, augmented by brain research that promises to impact educators' and parents' beliefs and practices. Education reform has brought higher standards for teacher certification and recertification, and districts often provide in-house training for professional staff. Such training and support -- especially time for teachers to plan and learn together -- are critical.
Teachers are continually challenged to tailor instruction to diverse student needs while maintaining high standards for all. Debate continues about whether heterogeneously or homogeneously grouped classes result in greater student learning. There are benefits for students in both types of classes. "Inclusion" refers to the widespread and fairly recent practice of serving students with special needs in regular education classes rather than pull-out programs. All students learn best when teachers honor diverse ways of knowing and doing, and when class size and the adult/student ratio are appropriate.
Parent involvement and choice
Education reform gives parents more options than ever before. While superintendents and principals generally have more authority over hiring and discipline than in the past, parents can serve on school councils, curriculum task forces, and school boards. Parents may also have the option of sending their children to magnet or charter schools, or to schools in neighboring communities. In a few large cities, parents may qualify for vouchers to send their children to private schools.
Promise vs. reality
Looked at globally, education reform calls for a redesign of our education system: new structures for schools, new expectations for student performance, new roles for students, teachers, and parents. In many places, education reform legislation has not been supported by adequate funding or structures for implementation, and little has changed for children in classrooms. In some places, restructuring has already had a positive impact on student learning. As active citizens, parents have the power to ensure that the promise of education reform becomes reality for all children.



How will students be evaluated?
Accountability is a prevalent theme in education reform. There is growing interest in more frequent testing and in using test results as a measure of school effectiveness. States usually mandate testing in grades 4, 8, and 10. Many state tests include open-ended problems and writing samples. When school funding, pay raises for teachers and administrators, and high school diplomas for students depend upon school and individual test results, it is called "high stakes" testing.
Another form of assessment, portfolio assessment, is a popular way to document student progress over time in meeting standards for a particular grade level or course. Students include representative samples of their best work in their portfolio. Portfolio assessment is effective when teacher expectations for student work are high and students have a clear understanding of what constitutes quality work. Portfolios are used in conjunction with tests and quizzes to evaluate student performance.


Info 1 Analysis:
According to the information obtained, we can infer that it is not easy switching from one style of learning to another style of learning in a short period of time. This means that although we cannot change the entire education system in a short amount of time, we can slowly influence a change in the system over a long period of time.


It seems probable that school days and school years will become longer. Time for non-instructional activities such as recess, lunch, and traveling from class to class will be reduced. The most significant changes will be made in high schools, where there is a trend toward replacing the traditional seven or eight period day with longer class periods, called "blocks." Longer class periods lend themselves to inquiry-based instruction that actively engages students in learning. Students take fewer subjects each day or term and go into greater depth in each; teachers work with fewer students at a time.


From the first paragraph we can tell that school days and school years will increase over time, leading to more classes being held and causing the number of periods to increase as the years go by. This will cause students to be stuck in class for a longer time in front of a whiteboard and a book, listening to the teacher conducting the lesson. As a result, the students may get bored and will pay less attention to class, thus not learning as efficiently. On the bright side, the teacher will have more time to go through the topic with students that are having trouble with it, somewhat increasing productivity.
It is also stated that non-instructional activities such as recess, lunch and travelling from class to class will be reduced. This might result in the student having lesser time to take a break from the previous class, possibly causing the student to be less attentive and might not absorb as much information as before. In the end, the students will not learn as much and will result in a lower grade.
Also, we can tell from the paragraph that longer class periods lend themselves to inquiry-based instruction that actively engages students in learning and students take fewer subjects each day or term and go into greater depth in each. From this, we can infer that having longer class periods will help the students to voice out their doubts and clarify them since they have the essence of time with them. Also, this can help the teachers focus on students more, helping them to learn more and imparting more knowledge towards them. However, there are two sides to a coin. With longer lessons, some students might get distracted easier and lose focus, causing them to learn a bit lesser than those that are able to focus. What’s more, the teacher might not be able to engage every single student in the class, thus some students might be left out and remain unsure of the topic.



Most states have new curriculum frameworks based on recently developed national standards. These frameworks drive state testing. School districts must ensure that district curricula are aligned with the state tests, which can be a strong catalyst for change at the school level.
While the traditional disciplines still form the core of what children study in school, most states have added world languages and health to the core curriculum. Languages are best learned before age 10, in an immersion setting, but most elementary schools provide little, if any, substantive instruction in a foreign language. Districts will have to rethink how and when languages are taught if students are to be truly proficient in a language other than English by the time they graduate from high school.
In all grades, there will be increased emphasis on problem-solving and inquiry. Students will be expected to apply knowledge and skills to real-life problems and to demonstrate "habits of mind" that support lifelong learning. They may be doing more projects and more writing.
As districts upgrade school buildings and technology tools, students will learn to use these tools for writing and research. New technologies will enable children to manipulate data, to experience physical phenomena and historical events through simulations, and to access resources around the world. Technology can provide powerful learning tools, but it remains to be seen whether funding will be adequate to ensure that all students have access to them.


From the second paragraph, it states that most states adopt their new curriculum framework based on recently developed national standards, including state testing. There will be a strong catalyst for change at school level. From this, we can infer that change is already happening, but at a slow rate. In time to come, this new framework will be implemented. However, no one knows if it will truly work for all the students as every student has different learning capabilities.
Furthermore, many places have added foreign languages and health to the subjects to school curriculum. Districts will have to rethink how and when languages are taught if students are to be truly proficient in a language other than English by the time they graduate from high school.
There will also be more emphasis on problem solving and inquiry as studnets will have to apply


http://teach.com/what/teachers-teach/teaching-methods

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Teaching Methods

The term Teaching method refers to the general principles, pedagogy and management strategies used for classroom instruction. Your choice of teaching method depends on what fits you — your educational philosophy, classroom demographic, subject area(s) and school mission statement. Teaching theories primarily fall into two categories or “approaches” — teacher-centered and student-centered:

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Teacher-Centered Approach to Learning

Teachers are the main authority figure in this model. Students are viewed as “empty vessels whose primary role is to passively receive information (via lectures and direct instruction) with an end goal of testing and assessment. It is the primary role of teachers to pass knowledge and information onto their students. In this model, teaching and assessment are viewed as two separate entities. Student learning is measured through objectively scored tests and assessments.

Student-Centered Approach to Learning

While teachers are an authority figure in this model, teachers and students play an equally active role in the learning process. The teacher’s primary role is to coach and facilitate student learning and overall comprehension of material. Student learning is measured through both formal and informal forms of assessment, including group projects, student portfolios, and class participation. Teaching and assessment are connected; student learning is continuously measured during teacher instruction.


To better understand these approaches, it is important to discuss what is generally understood as the three main teaching styles in educational pedagogy: direct instruction, inquiry-based learning and cooperative learning. Through these three teaching methods, teachers can gain a better understanding of how to govern their classroom, implement instruction and connect with their students. Within each of these three main teaching styles are teaching roles or “models.” Theorist A.F. Grasha explains the five main teaching models in her publication Teaching with Style (1996): Expert, Formal Authority, Personal Model, Facilitator and Delegator. To gain a better understanding of the fundamentals of each teaching style, it’s best to view them through the lens of direct instruction, inquiry-based learning, and cooperative teaching.

DIRECT INSTRUCTION

Direct instruction is the general term that refers to the traditional teaching strategy that relies on explicit teaching through lectures and teacher-led demonstrations. Direct instruction is the primary teaching strategy under theteacher-centered approach, in that teachers and professors are the sole supplier of knowledge and information. Direct instruction is effective in teaching basic and fundamental skills across all content areas.

INQUIRY-BASED LEARNING

Inquiry-based learning is a teaching method that focuses on student investigation and hands-on learning. In this method, the teacher’s primary role is that of a facilitator, providing guidance and support for students through the learning process. Inquiry-based learning falls under the student-centered approach, in that students play an active and participatory role in their own learning process.

COOPERATIVE LEARNING


Cooperative Learning refers to a method of teaching and classroom management that emphasizes group work and a strong sense of community. This model fosters students’ academic and social growth and includes teaching techniques such as “Think-Pair-Share” and reciprocal teaching. Cooperative learning falls under the student-centered approach because learners are placed in responsibility of their learning and development. This method focuses on the belief that students learn best when working with and learning from their peers.
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How the research will be carried out:

Teaching techniques that will be tested

Convention Teaching (Whiteboard teaching)
Basically, conventional teaching is the process where the teacher merely talks to the students, not engaging in any activity of any sort apart from pop quizes and tests.

Learning through Activities
Learning through activities is the process where students are engaged in activities and the teacher is just there to facilitate them and make sure that the work is done. Also, the teacher will clear any doubts any students have with the class as a whole.

Learning by experience
Learning by experience requires mistakes to be made. It is similar to the aspect of learning through activities, but it will be more inclined towards conventional teaching, only going through the problems when it is asked.

Online Learning
The teacher will record a video and play it during class. The students have to pick up anything from the vid and if they want to, playback the video to go through parts that they are not sure of. A physical teacher is irrelevant.

Research

6 students will be in one class which uses different learning techniques to teach the students the subject (For now, math). There will be two sessions per classes and both on back to back days. At the end of both sessions, there will be a short test on the subject learnt (Again, Math). Afterwards, a survey on how they feel about the learning technique which was used will be carried out and responses will be collated.

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